Apicurio Studio

Configuring Kafka serializers/deserializers in Java clients

Apicurio Registry serializer/deserializer configuration in client applications

You can configure specific client serializer/deserializer (SerDe) services and schema lookup strategies directly in a client application using the example constants shown in this section. Alternatively, you can configure the corresponding Apicurio Registry application properties in a file or an instance.

The following sections show examples of commonly used SerDe constants and configuration options.

Configuration for SerDe services

public class SerdeConfig {

   public static final String REGISTRY_URL = "apicurio.registry.url"; (1)
   public static final String ID_HANDLER = "apicurio.registry.id-handler"; (2)
   public static final String ENABLE_CONFLUENT_ID_HANDLER = "apicurio.registry.as-confluent"; (3)
  1. The required URL of Apicurio Registry.

  2. Extends ID handling to support other ID formats and make them compatible with Apicurio Registry SerDe services. For example, changing the default ID format from Long to Integer supports the Confluent ID format.

  3. Simplifies the handling of Confluent IDs. If set to true, an Integer is used for the global ID lookup. The setting should not be used with the ID_HANDLER option.

Additional resources

Configuration for SerDe lookup strategies

public class SerdeConfig {

   public static final String ARTIFACT_RESOLVER_STRATEGY = "apicurio.registry.artifact-resolver-strategy"; (1)
   public static final String SCHEMA_RESOLVER = "apicurio.registry.schema-resolver"; (2)
...
  1. Java class that implements the artifact resolver strategy and maps between the Kafka SerDe and artifact ID. Defaults to the topic ID strategy. This is only used by the serializer class.

  2. Java class that implements the schema resolver. Defaults to DefaultSchemaResolver. This is used by the serializer and deserializer classes.

Additional resources

Configuration for Kafka converters

public class SerdeBasedConverter<S, T> extends SchemaResolverConfigurer<S, T> implements Converter, Closeable {

   public static final String REGISTRY_CONVERTER_SERIALIZER_PARAM = "apicurio.registry.converter.serializer"; (1)
   public static final String REGISTRY_CONVERTER_DESERIALIZER_PARAM = "apicurio.registry.converter.deserializer"; (2)
  1. The required serializer to use with the Apicurio Registry Kafka converter.

  2. The required deserializer to use with the Apicurio Registry Kafka converter.

Additional resources

Configuration for different schema types

For details on how to configure SerDe for different schema technologies, see the following:

Apicurio Registry serializer/deserializer configuration properties

This section provides reference information on Java configuration properties for Apicurio Registry Kafka serializers/deserializers (SerDes).

SchemaResolver interface

Apicurio Registry SerDes are based on the SchemaResolver interface, which abstracts access to the registry and applies the same lookup logic for the SerDes classes of all supported formats.

Table 1. Configuration property for SchemaResolver interface
Constant Property Description Type Default

SCHEMA_RESOLVER

apicurio.registry.schema-resolver

Used by serializers and deserializers. Fully-qualified Java classname that implements SchemaResolver.

String

io.apicurio.registry.resolver.DefaultSchemaResolver

The DefaultSchemaResolver is recommended and provides useful features for most use cases. For some advanced use cases, you might use a custom implementation of SchemaResolver.

DefaultSchemaResolver class

You can use the DefaultSchemaResolver to configure features such as:

  • Access to the registry API

  • How to look up artifacts in the registry

  • How to write and read artifact information to and from Kafka

  • Fall-back options for deserializers

Configuration for registry API access options

The DefaultSchemaResolver provides the following properties to configure access to the core registry API:

Table 2. Configuration properties for access to registry API
Constant Property Description Type Default

REGISTRY_URL

apicurio.registry.url

Used by serializers and deserializers. URL to access the registry API.

String

None

AUTH_SERVICE_URL

apicurio.auth.service.url

Used by serializers and deserializers. URL of the authentication service. Required when accessing a secure registry using the OAuth client credentials flow.

String

None

AUTH_TOKEN_ENDPOINT

apicurio.auth.service.token.endpoint

Used by serializers and deserializers. URL of the token endpoint. Required when accessing a secure registry and AUTH_SERVICE_URL is not specified.

String

None

AUTH_REALM

apicurio.auth.realm

Used by serializers and deserializers. Realm to access the authentication service. Required when accessing a secure registry using the OAuth client credentials flow.

String

None

AUTH_CLIENT_ID

apicurio.auth.client.id

Used by serializers and deserializers. Client ID to access the authentication service. Required when accessing a secure registry using the OAuth client credentials flow.

String

None

AUTH_CLIENT_SECRET

apicurio.auth.client.secret

Used by serializers and deserializers. Client secret to access the authentication service. Required when accessing a secure registry using the OAuth client credentials flow.

String

None

AUTH_USERNAME

apicurio.auth.username

Used by serializers and deserializers. Username to access the registry. Required when accessing a secure registry using HTTP basic authentication.

String

None

AUTH_PASSWORD

apicurio.auth.password

Used by serializers and deserializers. Password to access the registry. Required when accessing a secure registry using HTTP basic authentication.

String

None

Configuration for registry lookup options

The DefaultSchemaResolver uses the following properties to configure how to look up artifacts in Apicurio Registry.

Table 3. Configuration properties for registry artifact lookup
Constant Property Description Type Default

ARTIFACT_RESOLVER_STRATEGY

apicurio.registry.artifact-resolver-strategy

Used by serializers only. Fully-qualified Java classname that implements ArtifactReferenceResolverStrategy and maps each Kafka message to an ArtifactReference (groupId, artifactId, and version). For example, the default strategy uses the topic name as the schema artifactId.

String

io.apicurio.registry.serde.strategy.TopicIdStrategy

EXPLICIT_ARTIFACT_GROUP_ID

apicurio.registry.artifact.group-id

Used by serializers only. Sets the groupId used for querying or creating an artifact. Overrides the groupId returned by the ArtifactResolverStrategy.

String

None

EXPLICIT_ARTIFACT_ID

apicurio.registry.artifact.artifact-id

Used by serializers only. Sets the artifactId used for querying or creating an artifact. Overrides the artifactId returned by the ArtifactResolverStrategy.

String

None

EXPLICIT_ARTIFACT_VERSION

apicurio.registry.artifact.version

Used by serializers only. Sets the artifact version used for querying or creating an artifact. Overrides the version returned by the ArtifactResolverStrategy.

String

None

FIND_LATEST_ARTIFACT

apicurio.registry.find-latest

Used by serializers only. Specifies whether the serializer tries to find the latest artifact in the registry for the corresponding group ID and artifact ID.

boolean

false

AUTO_REGISTER_ARTIFACT

apicurio.registry.auto-register

Used by serializers only. Specifies whether the serializer tries to create an artifact in the registry. The JSON Schema serializer does not support this feature.

boolean, boolean String

false

AUTO_REGISTER_ARTIFACT_IF_EXISTS

apicurio.registry.auto-register.if-exists

Used by serializers only. Configures the behavior of the client when there is a conflict creating an artifact because the artifact already exists. Available values are FAIL, UPDATE, RETURN, or RETURN_OR_UPDATE.

String

RETURN_OR_UPDATE

CHECK_PERIOD_MS

apicurio.registry.check-period-ms

Used by serializers and deserializers. Specifies how long to cache artifacts before auto-eviction (milliseconds). If set to zero, artifacts are fetched every time.

java.time.Duration, non-negative Number, or integer String

30000

RETRY_BACKOFF_MS

apicurio.registry.retry-backoff-ms

Used by serializers and deserializers. If a schema can not be be retrieved from the Registry, it may retry a number of times. This configuration option controls the delay between the retry attempts (milliseconds).

java.time.Duration, non-negative Number, or integer String

300

RETRY_COUNT

apicurio.registry.retry-count

Used by serializers and deserializers. If a schema can not be be retrieved from the Registry, it may retry a number of times. This configuration option controls the number of retry attempts.

non-negative Number, or integer String

3

USE_ID

apicurio.registry.use-id

Used by serializers and deserializers. Configures to use the specified IdOption as the identifier for artifacts. Options are globalId and contentId. Instructs the serializer to write the specified ID to Kafka, and instructs the deserializer to use this ID to find the schema.

String

globalId

Configuration to read/write registry artifacts in Kafka

The DefaultSchemaResolver uses the following properties to configure how artifact information is written to and read from Kafka.

Table 4. Configuration properties to read/write artifact information in Kafka
Constant Property Description Type Default

ENABLE_HEADERS

apicurio.registry.headers.enabled

Used by serializers and deserializers. Configures to read/write the artifact identifier to Kafka message headers instead of in the message payload.

boolean

true

HEADERS_HANDLER

apicurio.registry.headers.handler

Used by serializers and deserializers. Fully-qualified Java classname that implements HeadersHandler and writes/reads the artifact identifier to/from the Kafka message headers.

String

io.apicurio.registry.serde.headers.DefaultHeadersHandler

ID_HANDLER

apicurio.registry.id-handler

Used by serializers and deserializers. Fully-qualified Java classname of a class that implements IdHandler and writes/reads the artifact identifier to/from the message payload. Only used if apicurio.registry.headers.enabled is set to false.

String

io.apicurio.registry.serde.DefaultIdHandler

ENABLE_CONFLUENT_ID_HANDLER

apicurio.registry.as-confluent

Used by serializers and deserializers. Shortcut for enabling the legacy Confluent-compatible implementation of IdHandler. Only used if apicurio.registry.headers.enabled is set to false.

boolean

true

Configuration for deserializer fall-back options

The DefaultSchemaResolver uses the following property to configure a fall-back provider for all deserializers.

Table 5. Configuration property for deserializer fall-back provider
Constant Property Description Type Default

FALLBACK_ARTIFACT_PROVIDER

apicurio.registry.fallback.provider

Only used by deserializers. Sets a custom implementation of FallbackArtifactProvider for resolving the artifact used for deserialization. FallbackArtifactProvider configures a fallback artifact to fetch from the registry in case the lookup fails.

String

io.apicurio.registry.serde.fallback.DefaultFallbackArtifactProvider

The DefaultFallbackArtifactProvider uses the following properties to configure deserializer fall-back options:

Table 6. Configuration properties for deserializer fall-back options
Constant Property Description Type Default

FALLBACK_ARTIFACT_ID

apicurio.registry.fallback.artifact-id

Used by deserializers only. Sets the artifactId used as fallback for resolving the artifact used for deserialization.

String

None

FALLBACK_ARTIFACT_GROUP_ID

apicurio.registry.fallback.group-id

Used by deserializers only. Sets the groupId used as fallback for resolving the group used for deserialization.

String

None

FALLBACK_ARTIFACT_VERSION

apicurio.registry.fallback.version

Used by deserializers only. Sets the version used as fallback for resolving the artifact used for deserialization.

String

None

Additional resources
  • For more details, see the SerdeConfig Java class

  • You can configure application properties as Java system properties or include them in the Quarkus application.properties file. For more details, see the Quarkus documentation.

How to configure different client serializer/deserializer types

When using schemas in your Kafka client applications, you must choose which specific schema type to use, depending on your use case. Apicurio Registry provides SerDe Java classes for Apache Avro, JSON Schema, and Google Protobuf. The following sections explain how to configure Kafka applications to use each type.

You can also use Kafka to implement custom serializer and deserializer classes, and leverage Apicurio Registry functionality using the Apicurio Registry REST Java client.

Kafka application configuration for serializers/deserializers

Using the SerDe classes provided by Apicurio Registry in your Kafka application involves setting the correct configuration properties. The following simple Avro examples show how to configure a serializer in a Kafka producer application and how to configure a deserializer in a Kafka consumer application.

Example serializer configuration in a Kafka producer
// Create the Kafka producer
private static Producer<Object, Object> createKafkaProducer() {
    Properties props = new Properties();

    // Configure standard Kafka settings
    props.putIfAbsent(ProducerConfig.BOOTSTRAP_SERVERS_CONFIG, SERVERS);
    props.putIfAbsent(ProducerConfig.CLIENT_ID_CONFIG, "Producer-" + TOPIC_NAME);
    props.putIfAbsent(ProducerConfig.ACKS_CONFIG, "all");

    // Use Apicurio Registry-provided Kafka serializer for Avro
    props.putIfAbsent(ProducerConfig.KEY_SERIALIZER_CLASS_CONFIG, StringSerializer.class.getName());
    props.putIfAbsent(ProducerConfig.VALUE_SERIALIZER_CLASS_CONFIG, AvroKafkaSerializer.class.getName());

    // Configure the Apicurio Registry location
    props.putIfAbsent(SerdeConfig.REGISTRY_URL, REGISTRY_URL);

    // Register the schema artifact if not found in the registry.
    props.putIfAbsent(SerdeConfig.AUTO_REGISTER_ARTIFACT, Boolean.TRUE);

    // Create the Kafka producer
    Producer<Object, Object> producer = new KafkaProducer<>(props);
    return producer;
}
Example deserializer configuration in a Kafka consumer
// Create the Kafka consumer
private static KafkaConsumer<Long, GenericRecord> createKafkaConsumer() {
    Properties props = new Properties();

    // Configure standard Kafka settings
    props.putIfAbsent(ProducerConfig.BOOTSTRAP_SERVERS_CONFIG, SERVERS);
    props.putIfAbsent(ConsumerConfig.GROUP_ID_CONFIG, "Consumer-" + TOPIC_NAME);
    props.putIfAbsent(ConsumerConfig.ENABLE_AUTO_COMMIT_CONFIG, "true");
    props.putIfAbsent(ConsumerConfig.AUTO_COMMIT_INTERVAL_MS_CONFIG, "1000");
    props.putIfAbsent(ConsumerConfig.AUTO_OFFSET_RESET_CONFIG, "earliest");

    // Use Apicurio Registry-provided Kafka deserializer for Avro
    props.putIfAbsent(ConsumerConfig.KEY_DESERIALIZER_CLASS_CONFIG, StringDeserializer.class.getName());
    props.putIfAbsent(ConsumerConfig.VALUE_DESERIALIZER_CLASS_CONFIG, AvroKafkaDeserializer.class.getName());

    // Configure the Apicurio Registry location
    props.putIfAbsent(SerdeConfig.REGISTRY_URL, REGISTRY_URL);

    // No other configuration needed because the schema globalId the deserializer uses is sent
    // in the payload. The deserializer extracts the globalId and uses it to look up the schema
    // from the registry.

    // Create the Kafka consumer
    KafkaConsumer<Long, GenericRecord> consumer = new KafkaConsumer<>(props);
    return consumer;
}
Additional resources

Configure Avro SerDes with Apicurio Registry

This topic explains how to use the Kafka client serializer and deserializer (SerDes) classes for Apache Avro.

Apicurio Registry provides the following Kafka client SerDes classes for Avro:

  • io.apicurio.registry.serde.avro.AvroKafkaSerializer

  • io.apicurio.registry.serde.avro.AvroKafkaDeserializer

Configure the Avro serializer

You can configure the Avro serializer class with the following:

  • Apicurio Registry URL

  • Artifact resolver strategy

  • ID location

  • ID encoding

  • Avro datum provider

  • Avro encoding

ID location

The serializer passes the unique ID of the schema as part of the Kafka message so that consumers can use the correct schema for deserialization. The ID can be in the message payload or in the message headers. The default location is the message payload. To send the ID in the message headers, set the following configuration property:

props.putIfAbsent(SerdeConfig.ENABLE_HEADERS, "true")

The property name is apicurio.registry.headers.enabled.

ID encoding

You can customize how the schema ID is encoded when passing it in the Kafka message body. Set the apicurio.registry.id-handler configuration property to a class that implements the io.apicurio.registry.serde.IdHandler interface. Apicurio Registry provides the following implementations:

  • io.apicurio.registry.serde.DefaultIdHandler: Stores the ID as an 8-byte long

  • io.apicurio.registry.serde.Legacy4ByteIdHandler: Stores the ID as an 4-byte integer

Apicurio Registry represents the schema ID as a long, but for legacy reasons, or for compatibility with other registries or SerDe classes, you might want to use 4 bytes when sending the ID.

Avro datum provider

Avro provides different datum writers and readers to write and read data. Apicurio Registry supports three different types:

  • Generic

  • Specific

  • Reflect

The Apicurio Registry AvroDatumProvider is the abstraction of which type is used, where DefaultAvroDatumProvider is used by default.

You can set the following configuration options:

  • apicurio.registry.avro-datum-provider: Specifies a fully-qualified Java class name of the AvroDatumProvider implementation, for example io.apicurio.registry.serde.avro.ReflectAvroDatumProvider

  • apicurio.registry.use-specific-avro-reader: Set to true to use a specific type when using DefaultAvroDatumProvider

Avro encoding

When using Avro to serialize data, you can use the Avro binary encoding format to ensure the data is encoded in as efficient a format as possible. Avro also supports encoding the data as JSON, which makes it easier to inspect the payload of each message, for example, for logging or debugging.

You can set the Avro encoding by configuring the apicurio.registry.avro.encoding property with a value of JSON or BINARY. The default is BINARY.

Configure the Avro deserializer

You must configure the Avro deserializer class to match the following configuration settings of the serializer:

  • Apicurio Registry URL

  • ID encoding

  • Avro datum provider

  • Avro encoding

See the serializer section for these configuration options. The property names and values are the same.

The following options are not required when configuring the deserializer:

  • Artifact resolver strategy

  • ID location

The deserializer class can determine the values for these options from the message. The strategy is not required because the serializer is responsible for sending the ID as part of the message.

The ID location is determined by checking for the magic byte at the start of the message payload. If that byte is found, the ID is read from the message payload using the configured handler. If the magic byte is not found, the ID is read from the message headers.

Avro SerDes and artifact references

When working with Avro messages and a schema with nested records, a new artifact is registered per nested record. For example, the following TradeKey schema includes a nested Exchange schema:

TradeKey schema with nested Exchange schema
{
  "namespace": "com.kubetrade.schema.trade",
  "type": "record",
  "name": "TradeKey",
  "fields": [
    {
      "name": "exchange",
      "type": "com.kubetrade.schema.common.Exchange"
    },
    {
      "name": "key",
      "type": "string"
    }
  ]
}
Exchange schema
{
  "namespace": "com.kubetrade.schema.common",
  "type": "enum",
  "name": "Exchange",
  "symbols" : ["GEMINI"]
}

When using these schemas with Avro SerDes, two artifacts are created in Apicurio Registry, one for the TradeKey schema and one for the Exchange schema. Whenever a message using the TradeKey schema is serialized or deserialized, both schemas are retrieved, allowing you to split your definitions into different files.

Additional resources

Configure JSON Schema SerDes with Apicurio Registry

This topic explains how to use the Kafka client serializer and deserializer (SerDes) classes for JSON Schema.

Apicurio Registry provides the following Kafka client SerDes classes for JSON Schema:

  • io.apicurio.registry.serde.jsonschema.JsonSchemaKafkaSerializer

  • io.apicurio.registry.serde.jsonschema.JsonSchemaKafkaDeserializer

Unlike Apache Avro, JSON Schema is not a serialization technology, but is instead a validation technology. As a result, configuration options for JSON Schema are quite different. For example, there is no encoding option, because data is always encoded as JSON.

Configure the JSON Schema serializer

You can configure the JSON Schema serializer class as follows:

  • Apicurio Registry URL

  • Artifact resolver strategy

  • Schema validation

The only non-standard configuration property is JSON Schema validation, which is enabled by default. You can disable this by setting apicurio.registry.serde.validation-enabled to "false". For example:

props.putIfAbsent(SerdeConfig.VALIDATION_ENABLED, Boolean.FALSE)
Configure the JSON Schema deserializer

You can configure the JSON Schema deserializer class as follows:

  • Apicurio Registry URL

  • Schema validation

  • Class for deserializing data

You must provide the location of Apicurio Registry so that the schema can be loaded. The other configuration is optional.

Deserializer validation only works if the serializer passes the global ID in the Kafka message, which will only happen when validation is enabled in the serializer.
JSON Schema SerDes and artifact references

The JSON Schema SerDes cannot discover the schema from the message payload, so the schema artifact must be registered beforehand, and this also applies artifact references.

Depending on the content of the schema, if the $ref value is a URL, the SerDes try to resolve the referenced schema using that URL, and then validation works as usual, validating the data against the main schema, and validating the nested value against the nested schema. Support for referencing artifacts in Apicurio Registry has also been implemented.

For example, the following citizen.json schema references the city.json schema:

citizen.json schema with reference to city.json schema
{
 "$id": "https://example.com/citizen.schema.json",
 "$schema": "http://json-schema.org/draft-07/schema#",
 "title": "Citizen",
 "type": "object",
 "properties": {
   "firstName": {
     "type": "string",
     "description": "The citizen's first name."
   },
   "lastName": {
     "type": "string",
     "description": "The citizen's last name."
   },
   "age": {
     "description": "Age in years which must be equal to or greater than zero.",
     "type": "integer",
     "minimum": 0
   },
   "city": {
     "$ref": "city.json"
   }
 }
}
city.json schema
{
 "$id": "https://example.com/city.schema.json",
 "$schema": "http://json-schema.org/draft-07/schema#",
 "title": "City",
 "type": "object",
 "properties": {
   "name": {
     "type": "string",
     "description": "The city's name."
   },
   "zipCode": {
     "type": "integer",
     "description": "The zip code.",
     "minimum": 0
   }
 }
}

In this example, a given citizen has a city. In Apicurio Registry, a citizen artifact with a reference to the city artifact is created using the name city.json. In the SerDes, when the citizen schema is fetched, the city schema is also fetched because it is referenced from the citizen schema. When serializing/deserializing data, the reference name is used to resolve the nested schema, allowing validation against the citizen schema and the nested city schema.

Additional resources

Configure Protobuf SerDes with Apicurio Registry

This topic explains how to use the Kafka client serializer and deserializer (SerDes) classes for Google Protobuf.

Apicurio Registry provides the following Kafka client SerDes classes for Protobuf:

  • io.apicurio.registry.serde.protobuf.ProtobufKafkaSerializer

  • io.apicurio.registry.serde.protobuf.ProtobufKafkaDeserializer

Configure the Protobuf serializer

You can configure the Protobuf serializer class as follows:

  • Apicurio Registry URL

  • Artifact resolver strategy

  • ID location

  • ID encoding

  • Schema validation

For details on these configuration options, see the following sections:

Configure the Protobuf deserializer

You must configure the Protobuf deserializer class to match the following configuration settings in the serializer:

  • Apicurio Registry URL

  • ID encoding

The configuration property names and values are the same as for the serializer.

The following options are not required when configuring the deserializer:

  • Artifact resolver strategy

  • ID location

The deserializer class can determine the values for these options from the message. The strategy is not required because the serializer is responsible for sending the ID as part of the message.

The ID location is determined by checking for the magic byte at the start of the message payload. If that byte is found, the ID is read from the message payload using the configured handler. If the magic byte is not found, the ID is read from the message headers.

The Protobuf deserializer does not deserialize to your exact Protobuf Message implementation, but rather to a DynamicMessage instance. There is no appropriate API to do otherwise.
Protobuf SerDes and artifact references

When a complex Protobuf message with an import statement is used, the imported Protobuf messages are stored in Apicurio Registry as separate artifacts. Then when Apicurio Registry gets the main schema to check a Protobuf message, the referenced schemes are also retrieved so the full message schema can be checked and serialized.

For example, the following table_info.proto schema file includes the imported mode.proto schema file:

table_info.proto file with imported .mode.proto file
syntax = "proto3";
package sample;
option java_package = "io.api.sample";
option java_multiple_files = true;

import "sample/mode.proto";

message TableInfo {

 int32 winIndex = 1;
 Mode mode = 2;
 int32 min = 3;
 int32 max = 4;
 string id = 5;
 string dataAdapter = 6;
 string schema = 7;
 string selector = 8;
 string subscription_id = 9;
}
mode.proto file
syntax = "proto3";
package sample;
option java_package = "io.api.sample";
option java_multiple_files = true;

enum Mode {

MODE_UNKNOWN = 0;
RAW = 1;
MERGE = 2;
DISTINCT = 3;
COMMAND = 4;
}

In this example, two Protobuf artifacts are stored in Apicurio Registry, one for TableInfo and one for Mode. However, because Mode is part of TableInfo, whenever TableInfo is fetched to check a message in the SerDes, Mode is also returned as an artifact referenced by TableInfo.

Additional resources